This document is still in DRAFT form. Several recommendations in this document require changes to IPTC standards that have not yet been finalised. In particular, the controlled vocabulary names are currently in our "dev catalog" which means that they are subject to change. Also, some constructs in NewsML-G2 and ninjs require a version change which is planned to take place in May 2020.
The IPTC News Architecture Working Group welcomes feedback to this document. Please contact office@iptc.org with your feedback and suggestions.

Introduction

Since late 2018, the IPTC News Architecture Working Group has been monitoring and collaborating with several initiatives around trust and misinformation in the news industry. While we are leaving specifying the indicators of trust to these organisations, our aim is to make it easy to express trust indicators using IPTC standards, whilst leaving the specification of the indicators to these trust organisations.

We have been working with The Trust Project, Reporters Without Borders' Journalism Trust Initiative, the Credibility Coalition, the Certified Content Coalition and others to identify all known means of expressing trust in news content.

We want to make it easy for NewsML-G2 users to work with these standards and to convey the trustworthiness of their content in a way that makes it easier for news publishers to translate trust information to something that can be read by aggregator platforms and user tools.

In particular, we want to make it as easy as possible for syndicated content to be distributed and published in alignment with trust principles.

What are Trust Indicators?

Some trust and credibility projects have created their own set of "Trust Indicators" which can be shown to readers to build trust in a news publisher, journalist or an individual "piece of work" such as a news story or video.

Generally a trust indicator is a link to a document or a web page describing some aspect of the publisher’s process, ethics or editorial standards.

Just because there’s a trust indicator doesn’t mean that you can trust the publisher

It is important to note that the indicators cannot on their own tell readers that a news outlet is trustworthy. Trust indicators are merely assertions made by publishers, and aren’t audited or checked by third parties (although some trust projects are considering ways that this might be done in the future).

The idea is that, rather than news publishers simply showing an indicator saying "you should trust me" and readers believing them, publishers should show why they think they can be trusted, by showing trust indicators on their site.

Readers are encouraged to follow the trust indicator links, read the linked information, check the sources, and come to their own conclusions as to whether a site is trustworthy or not.

Or readers may choose to use a tool such as NewsGuard, that does some of this checking work for them.

A controlled vocabulary of "trust indicators"

At IPTC, we have looked at the trust indicators of each of these projects and have created a list containing all commonly used trust indicators.

We have published the list as a controlled vocabulary of trust indicators in our family of news metadata vocabularies known as IPTC NewsCodes.

The vocabulary is available on our NewsCodes server cv.iptc.org, and a browsable HTML version is also available.

Terms include policy aspects such as ethics policy, organisational credentials such as senior editorial staff (what some news organisations call their "masthead"), ownership and funding information, references to internal and external journalistic sources, corrections and more.

Some of these properties (mostly those created by The Trust Project) have the benefit of already being included in schema.org markup. The schema.org trust indicators are already widely used on real-world publisher sites, e.g. the BBC in the UK, El Pais in Spain, Washington Post in the US, Corriere della Serra in Italy and many more. Where a schema.org / Trust Project indicator was available, we chose very similar names for our indicators so they can easily be mapped.

Mapping Trust Indicators from NewsML-G2 and ninjs to schema.org

For IPTC member organisations and others using IPTC’s NewsML-G2 as the format for distributing their news content, here we show how trust indicators can be included in NewsML-G2 files and easily converted to schema.org markup to be embedded on HTML pages.

Similarly we have recently added the ability to add trust indicators to ninjs, IPTC’s standard for news content in JSON.

In this document we show the indicators defined in the standards that we are tracking, currently The Trust Project and the Journalism Trust Initiative. For each indicator, we show its source in Trust Project and/or Journalism Trust Initiative materials, then we show how it can be implemented in NewsML-G2 and ninjs code.

For media organisations receiving content in NewsML-G2 or ninjs format who then publish the stories in HTML format, we show the equivalent schema.org property that can be used.

An example of mapping NewsML-G2 to schema.org

A news agency can publish a story including their name and a link to their editorial policy defined in the story metadata in NewsML-G2:

<provider qcode="providercode:XXX">
  <name>Example Agency Inc.</name>
</provider>
<link rel="trustindicator:editorialPolicy" href="http://agency.org/edPolicy"/>

A publisher receiving that content from an agency which wants to link to the agency’s policy in published stories can convert it to schema.org markup:

<script type="application/ld+json">
{
  "@context": "http://schema.org",
  "@type": "Organization",
  "name": "Example Agency Inc.",
  "publishingPrinciples": "http://agency.org/edPolicy"
}
</script>

QCodes or URIs?

NewsML-G2 provides for a shortcut mechanism called "QCodes", which look like trustindicator:editorialPolicy. These are a shorthand for a URI, in this case http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/editorialPolicy.

Each time we give a NewsML-G2 example using a qcode you can substitute the equivalent URI.

So

<link rel="trustindicator:editorialPolicy" href="http://agency.org/edPolicy"/>

means the same as (or as we say in standards world, "is semantically equivalent to"):

<link reluri="http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/editorialPolicy"
      href="http://agency.org/edPolicy"/>

To learn more about QCodes, see the NewsML-G2 Guidelines.

The same example in ninjs

In ninjs we use copyrightholder to show the publisher’s name, and we list the controlled vocabulary source or "scheme" separately, so the same information looks like:

"copyrightholder": "Example Agency Inc.",
"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "editorialPolicy",
    "href": "http://agency.org/edPolicy"
  }
]

This would be translated to the same schema.org markup:

<script type="application/ld+json">
{
  "@context": "http://schema.org",
  "@type": "Organization",
  "name": "Example Agency Inc.",
  "publishingPrinciples": "http://agency.org/edPolicy"
}
</script>

Editorial policy indicators

These indicators explain the journalistic policies and practices of the organisation or individual journalist.

Editorial Policy

A statement describing the journalistic standards of behavior expected by the organisation. If no other editorial policy is given separately, this property should be used to link to the organisation’s overall editorial policy.

Trust Project reference

BP11 - Link to Best Practices Policies

JTI reference

JTI98. What is the [editorial guidelines] URL?

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:editorialPolicy" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "editorialPolicy",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

publishingPrinciples

Corrections Policy

A statement describing a newsroom’s disclosure and correction policy regarding errors.

Trust Project reference

BP3: Corrections Policy and Practice

JTI reference

JTI156. [under 13.1 "dealing with inaccuracies"] If yes, what is the URL where it [the process for communicating errors] can be seen?

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:correctionsPolicy" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "correctionsPolicy",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

correctionsPolicy

Coverage Policy

A statement on news coverage priorities, including any public agenda or stance on issues.

Trust Project reference

BP6: Mission Statement with Coverage Priorities / LOC1: Local coverage priorities

JTI reference

JTI26. Does your Media Outlet have an editorial mission statement, or stated set of principles or editorial values? [Y/N]
JTI27. Provide that statement here. [long text field]
JTI28. Is that statement posted online? [Y/N]
JTI29. What is the URL where it is published?

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:coveragePolicy" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "coveragePolicy",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

missionCoveragePrioritiesPolicy

Editorial Diversity Policy

An organisation’s policy describing diversity of editorial sources.

Trust Project reference

BP2 - Diverse Voices Statement

JTI reference

JTI202. Does your Media Outlet have a diversity policy as a part of the Editorial Guidelines?
JTI205. What is the URL?

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:editorialDiversityPolicy" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "editorialDiversityPolicy",
    "title": "Our Editorial Diversity Policy",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

diversityPolicy (the schema.org description says "a statement describing the newsroom’s diversity policy on both staffing and sources" so this covers both editorial and organisational diversity policy)

Ethics Policy

Statement about a news organisation’s ethics policy, e.g. regarding journalistic and publishing practices.

Trust Project reference

BP1: Ethics Policy

JTI reference

JTI33. Does your Media Outlet have a set of Editorial Guidelines or have you agreed to an external set of approved Editorial Guidelines?

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:ethics-policy" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "ethicsPolicy",
    "title": "Our Ethics Policy",
    "href": "https://www.publisher.org/ethicsPolicy/"
  }

schema.org property

ethicsPolicy

Feedback Policy

A statement about how a newsroom involves the public in coverage decisions, reporting and activities after publication.

Trust Project reference

BP9 - Actionable Feedback Policy

JTI reference

JTI163. What is the URL of where this [complaints process] information is available? If it is not on a single page, describe where Stakeholders can find it. 

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:feedbackPolicy" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "feedbackPolicy",
    "title": "...",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

actionableFeedbackPolicy

No Bylines Policy

A statement explaining when authors of articles are not named in bylines.

Trust Project reference

AUTH14: No-byline Explanation

JTI reference

n/a

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:noBylinesPolicy" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "noBylinesPolicy",
    "title": "...",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

noBylinesPolicy

Unnamed Sources Policy

A statement about policy on use of unnamed sources and the decision process required.

Trust Project reference

BP8: Unnamed Sources policy

JTI reference

JTI126. Are there guidelines on the procedures to be followed for granting anonymity to sources?

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:unnamedSourcesPolicy" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "unnamedSourcesPolicy",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

unnamedSourcesPolicy

Party-level indicators

These indicators can apply to any party, i.e. any Person or Organisation.

Archive

A list of the journalist or news organisation’s work in reverse chronological order, sometimes including a search option.

Trust Project reference

AUTH11: Archive of published texts/pieces for this publisher

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:archive" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "archive",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

Not available in schema.org

Awards

A list of the honours or awards received by the journalist or news organisation.

Trust Project reference

Honors and awards are not currently included in Trust Project materials.

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:award" href="..."/>

Multiple awards can be listed separately.

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "award",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

award

Knows About

Indicates a topic that is known about, suggesting possible expertise without distinguishing skill level.

Trust Project reference

AUTH5a: Topic Expertise / AUTH5b: Local/Demographic  Expertise

NewsML-G2 representation

<assert qcode="{id}">
  <type qcode="cpnat:person">
  <name>...</name>
  <link rel="trustindicator:knowsAbout" href="...">
    <note>...</note>
  </link>
</assert>

Or

<note role="trustindicator:knowsAbout">
  ...
</note>
</assert>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "knowsAbout",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

knowsAbout

Knows Language

Indicates knowledge of a human language. The presence of this indicator does not distinguish skill levels or reading/writing/speaking/signing. Language codes should be taken from the IETF BCP 47 standard.

Trust Project reference

AUTH4: Languages Spoken

NewsML-G2 representation

<assert qcode="{id}">
  <type qcode="cpnat:person?">
  <name>...</name>
  <link rel="trustindicator:knowsLanguage" href="...">
    <note>...</note>
  </link>
</assert>

Or

<note role="trustindicator:knowsLanguage">
  ...
</note>
</assert>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "knowsLanguage",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

knowsLanguage

Organisation-level indicators

These indicators can describe information about a journalistic organisation, but from a non-journalistic perspective - for example organisational diversity, the date the organisation was founded, or its sources of funding. See [Editorial policy indicators] for an explanation of how to represent an organisation’s journalistic credentials.

Diversity Staffing Report

A report on staffing diversity issues. In a news context this might be for example ASNE or RTDNA (US) reports, or self-reported.

Trust Project reference

BP2a - Diverse Staffing Report

JTI reference

JTI187. Do those [recruitment and training] guidelines contain diversity policy?

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:diversityStaffingReport" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "diversityStaffingReport",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

diversityStaffingReport

Founding Date

The date (or year) when the organisation was founded.

Trust Project reference

BP4a - Founding Date

JTI reference

JTI23. What is the founding date of the Legal Entity?

NewsML-G2 representation

<organisationDetails>
  <founded>2019-01-01</founded>
</organisationDetails>

ninjs representation

We recommend that founding date is included on the ownershipFundingInfo page.

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "ownershipFundingInfo",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

foundingDate

Membership of Trust Initiatives and Professional Bodies

Here organisations can indicate that they are members of a scheme such as The Trust Project or the Journalism Trust Initiative. It is important to note that this is a self-declaration and readers should check with the organisation concerned.

Trust Project reference

AUTH13: Professional Memberships
and
BP13: Reference to Participation in Trust Project

JTI reference

JTI113. Do you belong to any other bodies that require members to adhere to published guidelines, standards or norms to maintain status in that organisation?

NewsML-G2 representation

We are planning to add this organisation affiliation construct to NewsML-G2 2.29, planned to be released in Spring 2020.
<organisationDetails>
  <affiliation uri="https://thetrustproject.org/">
    <name>The Trust Project</name>
  </affiliation>
  <affiliation uri="https://jti-rsf.org/">
    <name>Journalism Trust Initiative</name>
  </affiliation>
</organisationDetails>

ninjs representation

We recommend that memberships are included on the ownershipFundingInfo page.

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "ownershipFundingInfo",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

memberOf

Organisation Contact Info

How to contact the organisation by email, post, phone or other means.

Trust Project reference

BP10: Newsroom Contact Info

JTI reference

2. What is the postal address for the Legal Entity?
72. What are the locations for branches and other offices not listed in the Locations section for headquarters, above?

NewsML-G2 representation

<organisationDetails>
  <contactInfo>...</contactInfo>
</organisationDetails>

ninjs representation

We recommend that the organisation’s address is included on the ownershipFundingInfo page.

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "ownershipFundingInfo",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

address, contactPoint, email etc.

Organisation Diversity Policy

Statement on the organisation’s staff diversity policy, optionally providing staffing data.

Trust Project reference

DIV1 Diversity Statement

JTI reference

JTI114. Do you have guidelines for the recruitment and training of editorial staff? Do those guidelines contain a diversity policy?

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:organisationDiversityPolicy" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "organisationDiversityPolicy",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

diversityPolicy

Organisation Name

The publisher of the creative work. Typically the name of the publisher or a link to an Organisation.

Trust Project reference

Contact Info

JTI reference

1. What is the Legal Entity Name?

NewsML-G2 representation

<provider qcode="providercode:XXX">
  <name>Example Publisher Inc.</name>
</provider>

ninjs representation

"copyrightholder": "Example Publisher Inc."

schema.org property

name / legalName / publisher

Ownership and Funding Information

A description of organizational ownership structure, funding and grants, with particular reference to editorial independence.

Trust Project reference

BP4. Ownership Structure, Funding and Grants and Editorial Independence

JTI reference

JTI52. What are the names of all direct or indirect owners?
JTI34. Is the outlet a Public Service Media?
JTI41. What proportion of income is public funds?
JTI49. Is the ownership of the Media Outlet different from the four previous standards in this section?
JTI50. What is the form of ownership?
JTI51. If there is a combination, explain that here along with a breakdown by ownership type.

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:ownershipFundingInfo" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "ownershipFundingInfo",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

ownershipFundingInfo, Grant (type), sponsor

Senior Editorial Staff (Masthead)

Information about a news outlet’s senior editorial staff, sometimes known as the masthead

Trust Project reference

BP5 - Masthead

JTI reference

JTI71. What are the names, positions, and contact details of all members of management for the Media Outlet?

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:seniorEditorialStaff" href="..."/>

Or

<contributor role="cpprol:editor">
  <name>Jane Smith</name>
</contributor>

etc.

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "seniorEditorialStaff",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

masthead

Verification/Fact Checking Policy

Trust Project reference

BP7: Verification/Fact-checking Standards

JTI reference

JTI138. Do your Editorial Guidelines include a verification process for content supplied by the public?

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:factCheckingPolicy" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "factCheckingPolicy",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

verificationFactCheckingPolicy

Piece-of-Work-level indicators

These indicators provide trust information that applies to a particular piece of journalistic work, such as references or sources.

Please note that the Journalism Trust Initiative only covers trust indicators at the organisational level, not the piece-of-work or person level.

Dateline

A dateline is a brief piece of text included in news articles that describes where and when the story was written or filed though the date is often omitted.

Trust Project reference

METH1: Dateline/Placeline

NewsML-G2 representation

<dateline></dateline>

ninjs representation

This is a new field which will be coming in ninjs 1.3.
"dateline": "..."

schema.org property

dateline

Editor

Specifies the person who edited the news item.

Trust Project reference

METH5a: Identify Editor

NewsML-G2 representation

<contributor role="cpprol:editor">
  <name>Jo Smith</name>
</contributor>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "seniorEditorialStaff",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

editor

Fact checker

Specifies the person who fact-checked the news item to ensure its accuracy.

Trust Project reference

METH5b: Identify Fact-Checker

NewsML-G2 representation

<contributor role="cpprol:factChecker"> (to be added)
   <name>Jo Smith</name>
</contributor>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "seniorEditorialStaff",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

n/a

Corrects / Corrected By

IPTC Trust Indicators handle corrections in both directions: a link from an incorrect work to a corrected one, and the link from the correction to the original incorrect work.

correctedByResource indicates an update to a journalistic work via a link to another document that corrects this document.

correctsResource indicates that this news item corrects the referenced news item.

Trust Project reference

BP3b: Corrected or Clarified  Article

NewsML-G2 representation

Linking from incorrect to corrected version:

<link rel="trustindicator:correctedByResource" residref="{id}" href="..."/>

In this case, @residref is the  id of the article carrying the correction or clarification.

Linking from correct to incorrect version:

<link rel="trustindicator:correctsResource" residref="{id}" href="..."/>

In this case, @residref is the id of the article being corrected or clarified.

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "correctedByResource",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

or

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "correctsResource",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

correction

Backstory

The backstory provides a textual summary giving a brief explanation of why and how an article was created.

Trust Project reference

METH2: Sourcing and Methodology (applied to select stories)

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:internalSourceMaterials" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "internalSourceMaterials",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

backstory

Provider

A generic property describing the service provider. This may be the source from which the story is provided, such as a news agency.

Trust Project reference

No direct mapping

NewsML-G2 representation

<itemMeta>
<provider></provider>
</itemMeta>

ninjs representation

"infosource": {
    "name": "Example Agency"
}

schema.org property

provider

Editorial Policy (aka Publishing Principles or Best Practice Policies)

The same as Editorial Policy at the organisation level, but linked from an individual piece of work.

Note that all link structures can be expressed either at the organisation level or the article level.

Trust Project reference

BP11 - Link to Best Practices Policies

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:editorialPolicy" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "editorialPolicy",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

publishingPrinciples

Policies relevant to the work

A place to link to specific policies that are especially relevant to this particular piece of work, for example a link to the "unnamed sources" policy on an article that relies on that policy.

Trust Project reference

BP12 Policies Especially Relevant to the Work

NewsML-G2 representation

All link structures can be expressed either at the organisation level or the article level. For example:

<link rel="trustindicator:unnamedSourcesPolicy" residref="{id}" href="..."/>

Original Video is Local

According to the Trust Project, an indicator that "Video used in the story was captured by the local news organization or their trusted affiliate(s) in the community they serve and where the news event or issue occurred."

Trust Project reference

LOC3: Original Video is Local

NewsML-G2 representation

<signal> ### TBD

ninjs representation

### TBD

Content Location

The location of the content/story itself (not the location of the content’s author).

Trust Project reference

LOC4: Geo-location of Story

NewsML-G2 representation

<subject type="cpnat:geoArea" qcode="val*>
<name xml:lang="en-GB">...</name>
</subject>

ninjs representation

"located": "Washington, DC"

or

"place": [
    {
        "name" : "Ljubljana",
        "rel" : "about",
        "scheme" : "http://sws.geonames.org",
        "code" : "3196359"
    }
]

schema.org property

contentLocation

Internal Source Materials

Indicates journalistic materials used to create this news item, such as interview transcripts or data analysis.

Trust Project reference

REF1: Internal Original Documents and Data

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:internalSourceMaterials" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "internalSourceMaterials",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

backstory

External Source Materials

External material that this news item is based on, such as a press release or parliamentary record.

Trust Project reference

REF2: External Original Documents and Data; Source Bios

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:externalSourceMaterials" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "externalSourceMaterials",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

n/a

Secondary Sources

Indicator of an external source that this news item is based on, such as an existing news report elsewhere in the media.

Trust Project reference

REF3: Secondary News Sources

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:secondarySources" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "secondarySources",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

n/a

Person-level indicators

Indicators of trustworthiness concerning the person who created or edited the news content. Generally sed for indicators relevant to an individual journalist at a larger organisation but could also be used for independent writers, bloggers etc.

Please note that the Journalism Trust Initiative only covers trust indicators at the organisational level, not the article or person level.

Journalist Name

The name(s) of the creator(s) of the journalistic work.

Trust Project reference

AUTH1: Name (or byline)

NewsML-G2 representation

<creator>
  <name>...</name>
</creator>

ninjs representation

"byline": "Jo Smith"

schema.org property

givenName / familyName of type Person.

Journalist Image

Link to photograph or image of the journalist that created a piece of editorial content.

Trust Project reference

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1lK_F_6r__seoE90ze6Kk6geONR3C6OcPmfw7WRJ3GYQ/edit#bookmark=kix.xe5366c9qd8tAUTH2: Photo]

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:journalistImage" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "journalistImage",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

image of type Person.

Journalist Location

Where the journalist is based (city). This is not the same as dateline/placeline, which captures instances when a journalist travelled to cover a story or is stationed away from the home office.

Trust Project reference

AUTH2: Location

NewsML-G2 representation

<assert> 
<personDetails>
<contactInfo role="ciprol:office">
...
</contactInfo>
</personDetails>
</assert>

ninjs representation

"located": "..."

schema.org property

homeLocation of type Person.

Journalist Biography

Brief journalistic biography. Can include previous employers, education, outside interests, commitments associated with ethics (such as voting, community involvement). According to the Trust Project, biography must include any affiliations that may pose a conflict of interest and how this is handled. A biography’s length is not necessarily an indicator of trustworthiness.

Trust Project reference

AUTH6: Biography

schema.org property

description

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:biography" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "biography",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

Journalist Contact Details

Details for how to contact the author of the news item. As with other fields, this is optional.

Trust Project reference

AUTH7: Contact Details and Actionable Feedback: Contact Point

NewsML-G2 representation

<personDetails>
<contactInfo role="...">
<address role="ciprol:office">
    <line>...</line>
    <locality>
        <name>...</name>
    </locality>
    <country qcode="iso3166-1a2:..">
        <name xml:lang="en">...</name>
    </country>
    <postalCode>...</postalCode>
    <worldRegion qcode="maxmindcc:..">...</worldRegion>
</address>
</contactInfo>
</personDetails>

ninjs representation

We recommend using the biography page to express this information:

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "biography",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

contactPoint

Journalist Identifier

External to publisher and persistent across organisations. Example: A Twitter or LinkedIn handle, or both.

schema.org property

identifier

Trust Project reference

AUTH8: Persistent ID

NewsML-G2 representation

<assert qcode="{id}">
...
</assert>

ninjs representation

We recommend using the biography page to express this information:

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "biography",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

Journalist Affiliation

An affiliation between the author of the news item and another organisation (such as their employer, a journalist union or association, or a group conferring status on the member such as an opinion piece being written by the president of a non-profit organisation).

Trust Project reference

AUTH9: Affiliation with Publisher/Job Title or Role

schema.org property

affiliation

NewsML-G2 representation

assert/ personDetails / affiliation:
----
<affiliation type="orgnat:publisher" qcode="org:NYT">
<name>New York Times</name>
</affiliation>
----

ninjs representation

We recommend using the biography page to express this information:

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "biography",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

Journalist Page

A page describing the journalist or their work, such as a page on a news outlet aggregating all of that journalist’s news items.

Trust Project reference

AUTH13: Journalist Page

schema.org property

url

NewsML-G2 representation

<link rel="trustindicator:journalistPage" href="..."/>

ninjs representation

We recommend using the biography page to express this information:

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "biography",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

Journalist Memberships

Here individual people can indicate that they are members of an organisation such as a journalist trade union or guild, a professional journalism association or another relevant body, such as a science membership organisation for a science writer.

It is important to note that this is a self-declaration and readers should check with the organisation concerned.

NewsML-G2 representation

<assert>
  <personDetails>
    <affiliation uri="https://thetrustproject.org/">
      <name>The Trust Project</name>
    </affiliation>
  </personDetails>
</assert>

ninjs representation

We recommend using the biography page to express this information:

"trustindicator": [
  {
    "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/trustindicator/",
    "code": "biography",
    "href": "..."
  }
]

schema.org property

memberOf

Type of Work Indicator

The Trust Project also includes an indication of the "type of work" as an indicator to show whether a news item is satirical (and therefore should not be considered factual), advertiser sponsored or supported by a third party such as a charitable foundation, or is an opinion piece and therefore doesn’t necessarily contain objective reporting.

News Report/Feature

Content about a particular event or individual that may not be significant to current breaking news.

Trust Project reference

TOW1: News (Reportage, feature, news report)

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Feature">
<name>Feature</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Feature",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "Feature"
   }
]

schema.org type

ReportageNewsArticle

News Article

The content is about events taking place at the time of the report.

Trust Project reference

TOW2: News Article

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Current">
<name>Current news</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Current",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "Current"
   }
]

schema.org type

NewsArticle

Opinion

Editorial comment that reflects the views of the author.

Trust Project reference

TOW4: Opinion

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Opinion">
<name>Opinion</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Opinion",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "Opinion"
   }
]

schema.org type

https://pending.schema.org/OpinionNewsArticle

Analysis

Data and conclusions drawn by a journalist who has researched the story in depth.

Trust Project reference

TOW3: Analysis

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Analysis">
<name>Analysis</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Analysis",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "Analysis"
   }
]

schema.org type

https://pending.schema.org/AnalysisNewsArticle

Background

The news item provides some scene setting and explanation for the event being reported.

Trust Project reference

TOW9: Explainer

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Background">
<name>Background</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Background",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "Background"
   }
]

schema.org type

BackgroundNewsArticle

Fact Check

The news item looks into the truth or falsehood of another reported news item or assertion (for example a statement on social media by a public figure).

Trust Project reference

TOW9: Fact Check

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Fact_Check"> ### Proposed new genre
<name>Fact Check</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Fact Check",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "Fact_Check"
   }
]

schema.org type

https://schema.org/ClaimReview

Help Us to Report

The news item is a call for readers to provide information that may help journalists to investigate a potential news story.

Trust Project reference

TOW10: Help Us Report (request to users)

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Help_Us_to_Report"> ### Proposed new genre
<name>Help us to report</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "HelpUsToReport",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "HelpUsToReport"
   }
]

schema.org type

https://pending.schema.org/AskPublicNewsArticle

Special Report

In-depth examination of a single subject requiring extensive research and usually presented at great length, either as a single item or as a series of items.

Trust Project reference

TOW13: Investigative/Enterprise

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Special_Report">
<name>Special Report</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Special Report",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "Special_Report"
   }
]

schema.org type

https://schema.org/Article # Is this the closest?

Obituary

A narrative about an individual’s life and achievements for publication after death.

Trust Project reference

TOW11: Obituary

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Obituary">
<name>Obituary</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Obituary",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "Obituary"
   }
]

schema.org type

https://schema.org/Article # Is this the closest?

Review

A critique of a creative activity or service (for example a book, a film or a restaurant).

Trust Project reference

TOW12: Review

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Review">
<name>Review</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Review",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "Review"
   }
]

schema.org type

https://pending.schema.org/ReviewNewsArticle

Behind the Story

Clarifies for the public how a story was reported.

Trust Project reference

TOW14: Behind the Story

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Background"> ### Use the existing "Background" or create a new genre?
<name>Review</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Background",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "Background"
   }
]

Satire

Uses exaggeration, irony, or humour to make a point; not intended to be understood as factual.

Trust Project reference

TOW15: Satire

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="genre:Satire"> ### Proposed new genre
<name>Satire</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Satire",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/genre/"
      "code": "Satire"
   }
]

schema.org type

https://schema.org/SatiricalArticle

Advertiser Content

Supplied by an organisation or individual that has paid the news provider for its placement.

Trust Project reference

TOW5: Advertiser Content

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="newcv:AdvertiserContent"> ### Proposed new genre (or new CV)
<name>Advertiser Content</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Advertiser Content",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/newcv/"
      "code": "Advertiser_Content"
   }
]

schema.org type

AdvertiserContentArticle

Sponsored/created for

Produced on behalf of an organisation or individual that has paid the news provider for production and may approve content publication.

Trust Project reference

TOW6: Sponsored / Created For

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="newcv:Sponsored"> ### Proposed new genre (or new CV)
<name>Sponsored</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Sponsored",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/newcv/"
      "code": "Sponsored"
   }
]

schema.org type

AdvertiserContentArticle

Supported content

Produced with financial support from an organisation or individual, yet not approved by the underwriter before or after publication.

Trust Project reference

TOW7: Underwritten/Supported

NewsML-G2 representation

<genre qcode="newcv:Supported"> ### Proposed new genre (or new CV)
<name>Supported</name>
</genre>

ninjs representation

"genre": [
   {
      "name": "Supported",
      "scheme": "http://cv.iptc.org/newscodes/newcv/"
      "code": "Supported"
   }
]

schema.org type

AdvertiserContentArticle # closest match?